Origins and composition of soil. Classification of soils for engineering purposes. Basic physical properties of soils. Groundwater, pore pressure and effective stress. Soil permeability and seepage: coefficient of permeability, seepage velocity and seepage pressure, constant head and falling head tests, field permeability tests, two dimensional flow, flow net, seepage through earth dam and embankments, seepage in anisotropic soils, instability due to seepage and dewatering excavations. Measurement of shear strength: shear strength and friction model, shear box test, triaxial compression test, variations in undrained strength, sensitivity of clays, pore pressure coefficients A and B, shear vane test and estimates of shear strength parameters from index tests. Consolidation theory: oedometer test, void ratio-pressure plots, normally consolidated and overconsolidated clays. Site investigation and in-situ testing. Laboratory and field testing of soils.
Cement: types of cement, Portland cement, production, composition, characteristics, tests on cement properties. Aggregates: classification, characteristics, gradation, strength, tests on aggregate properties. Concrete: concrete mix, tests for fresh concrete mix, workability of fresh concrete, shotcrete, concrete admixtures, strength of concrete, aspects of hardened concrete, tests for hardened concrete. Bituminous materials: asphalt refining, uses and properties; asphalt cement physical tests, asphalt cement grading system, rheological properties and pavement performance. Steel: steel classifications, production, properties, types of steel used in the construction industry. Timber: timber classification, production, properties, types of timber used in the construction industry.